Emotion and Theme Recognition in Music Using Jamendo
The goal of this task is to automatically recognize the emotions and themes conveyed in a music recording using machine learning algorithms.
- 25 September: The results are out!
- 3 September: Final baseline results are now available.
- 27 August: We have added more details about the use of the validation set and evaluation.
- 7 August: We have formalized the submission format and now provide evaluation scripts for self-evaluation, see submissions and evaluations section below
- 1 August: We have expanded our dataset with pre-computed statistical features from Essentia using the feature extractor for AcousticBrainz. These features are were previously used in the MediaEval genre recognition tasks in 2017 and 2018.
- 12 June: Data is now available to download. We will announce the submission format and provide scripts to validate submissions soon.
- June-September: Participants work on algorithms
- September: Submissions open
- 20 September: Deadline for final submissions to organisers
- 25 September: Results returned to participants
- 1 October: Working notes deadline
- 7 October: Feedback on working notes to participants
- 11 October: Camera Ready version of working notes due
- October 27-29: MediaEval 2019 Workshop held near Nice, France
Emotion and theme recognition is a popular task in music information retrieval that is relevant for music search and recommendation systems. We invite the participants to try their skills at recognizing moods and themes conveyed by the audio tracks.
This task involves the prediction of moods and themes conveyed by a music track, given the raw audio. The examples of moods and themes are: happy, dark, epic, melodic, love, film, space etc. Each track is tagged with at least one tag that serves as a ground-truth.
Participants are expected to train a model that takes raw audio as an input and outputs the predicted tags. To solve the task, participants can use any audio input representation they desire, be it traditional handcrafted audio features or spectrograms or raw audio inputs for deep learning approaches. We also provide a handcrafted feature set extracted by the Essentia audio analysis library as a reference. We allow usage of third-party datsets for model development and training, but it needs to be mentioned explicitly.
The generated outputs for the test dataset will be evaluated according to typical performance metrics like ROC-AUC, PR-AUC and micro/macro-averaged precision, recall and F-score.
We provide a dataset that is split into training, validation and testing subsets with emotion and theme labels properly balanced between subsets.
Researchers in areas of music information retrieval, music psychology, machine learning a generally music and technology enthusiasts.
The dataset used for this task is the
autotagging-moodtheme subset of the MTG-Jamendo dataset , built using audio data from Jamendo and made available under Creative Commons licenses. This subset includes 18,486 audio tracks with mood and theme annotations. In total, there are 57 tags, and tracks can possibly have more than one tag.
We provide audio files in 320kbps MP3 format (152 GB) as well as NPY numpy archives with pre-computed mel-spectrograms (68 GB). To download the data use the scripts and instructions provided for the MTG-Jamendo dataset.
To download audio for the task, unpack and validate all tar archives:
mkdir /path/to/download python3 scripts/download/download.py --dataset autotagging_moodtheme --type audio /path/to/download --unpack --remove
Similarly, to download mel-spectrograms:
mkdir /path/to/download_melspecs python3 scripts/download/download.py --dataset autotagging_moodtheme --type melspecs /path/to/download_melspecs --unpack --remove
To download Essentia (AcousticBrainz) features:
mkdir /path/to/download_acousticbrainz python3 scripts/download/download.py --dataset autotagging_moodtheme --type acousticbrainz /path/to/download_acousticbrainz --unpack --remove
Training, validation and test data
The MTG-Jamendo dataset provides multiple random data splits for training, validation and testing (60-20-20%). For this challenge we use one of those splits (split-0).
Participants should develop their systems using the provided training and validation splits.
The validation set should be used for tuning hyperparameters of the models and regularization against overfitting by early stopping. These optimizations should not be done using the test set, which should be only used to estimate the performance of the final submissions.
We place no restrictions on the use of 3rd party datasets for the development of the systems. In this case, we ask the participants to also provide a baseline system using only data from the official training/validation set. Similarly, if one wants to append validation set to the training data to build a model using more data for the final submission, a baseline using only training set for training should be provided.
Submissions and evaluation
Participants should generate predictions for the test split and submit those to the task organizers.
To have a better understanding of the behavior of the proposed systems, we ask to submit both prediction (probability) scores and binary classification decisions for each tag for the tracks in the test set. We provide a script to calculate activation thresholds and generate decisions from predictions by maximizing macro F-score.
The submission format is two
.npy files containing a numpy matrix with rows representing tracks and columns - tags. The dimensions should be 4231 tracks x 56 tags. The order of tracks should be the same as in the test split and the order of tags is an alphabetically sorted one, please refer to this file. Use
numpy.save() to create submission files:
We will use the following metrics, both types commonly used in the evaluation of auto-tagging systems:
- Macro ROC-AUC and PR-AUC on tag prediction scores
- Micro- and macro-averaged precision, recall and F-score for binary predictions.
Participants should report the obtained metric scores on the validation split and test split if they have run such a test on their own. Participants should also report whether they used the whole development dataset or only its part for every submission. We provide the scripts to do that in mtg-jamendo-dataset repository:
cd /path/to/mtg-jamendo-dataset/scripts python3 mediaeval2019/evaluate.py ../data/mediaeval2019/groundtruth.npy ../data/mediaeval2019/predictions.npy ../results/mediaeval2019/decisions.npy --output-file ../results/mediaeval2019/results.tsv
To generate decisions from predictions using provided script:
python3 mediaeval2019/calculate_decisions.py ../results/mediaeval2019/groundtruth.npy ../results/mediaeval2019/my_predictions.npy ../data/mediaeval2019/my_thresholds.txt ../data/tags/moodtheme_split.txt --decision-file ../data/mediaeval2019/my_decisions.npy
We will generate rankings of the submissions by ROC-AUC, PR-AUC and micro and macro F-score. For the leaderboard purposes we will use PR-AUC as the main metric, however we encourage comprehensive evaluation of the systems by using all metrics with the goal of generating more valuable insights on the proposed models when reporting evaluation results in the working notes.
We allow only five evaluation runs per participating team.
Note that we rely on the fairness of submissions and do not hide the ground truth for the test split. It is publicly available for benchmarking as a part of the MTG-Jamendo dataset outside this challenge. For transparency and reproducibility, we encourage the participants to publically release their code under an open-source/free software license.
VGG-ish baseline approach
We used a broadly used vgg-ish architecture as our baseline. It consists of five 2D convolutional layers followed by a dense connection. Reproducible codes are available in mtg-jamendo-dataset repository. We trained our model for 1000 epochs and used the validation set to choose the best model. Then we have found optimizal decision thresholds for the activation values individually for each tag, maximizing macro F-score (script).
Our experimental result was:
ROC-AUC 0.725821 PR-AUC 0.107734 precision-macro 0.138216 recall-macro 0.308650 F-score-macro 0.165694 precision-micro 0.116097 recall-micro 0.373480 F-score-micro 0.177133
and tag-wise AUCs were:
mood/theme---action 0.6590 , 0.0312 mood/theme---adventure 0.6250 , 0.0803 mood/theme---advertising 0.7798 , 0.2477 mood/theme---background 0.7059 , 0.0376 mood/theme---ballad 0.7109 , 0.0542 mood/theme---calm 0.6805 , 0.0361 mood/theme---children 0.7396 , 0.1244 mood/theme---christmas 0.7114 , 0.1069 mood/theme---commercial 0.6707 , 0.0654 mood/theme---cool 0.7204 , 0.0215 mood/theme---corporate 0.8721 , 0.3373 mood/theme---dark 0.7409 , 0.2183 mood/theme---deep 0.9347 , 0.5761 mood/theme---documentary 0.6485 , 0.0592 mood/theme---drama 0.5952 , 0.0253 mood/theme---dramatic 0.6786 , 0.0378 mood/theme---dream 0.5843 , 0.0815 mood/theme---emotional 0.6190 , 0.1327 mood/theme---energetic 0.7118 , 0.1186 mood/theme---epic 0.8197 , 0.3080 mood/theme---fast 0.8242 , 0.0266 mood/theme---film 0.7595 , 0.3441 mood/theme---fun 0.8264 , 0.0773 mood/theme---funny 0.6681 , 0.0279 mood/theme---game 0.6971 , 0.0480 mood/theme---groovy 0.7609 , 0.0238 mood/theme---happy 0.7618 , 0.2534 mood/theme---heavy 0.9067 , 0.1260 mood/theme---holiday 0.6415 , 0.0153 mood/theme---hopeful 0.6336 , 0.0323 mood/theme---inspiring 0.6450 , 0.0916 mood/theme---love 0.7276 , 0.1205 mood/theme---meditative 0.8070 , 0.1669 mood/theme---melancholic 0.6606 , 0.0475 mood/theme---melodic 0.6676 , 0.0977 mood/theme---motivational 0.7945 , 0.2012 mood/theme---movie 0.5419 , 0.0250 mood/theme---nature 0.6315 , 0.0458 mood/theme---party 0.8026 , 0.0420 mood/theme---positive 0.7676 , 0.0901 mood/theme---powerful 0.8004 , 0.1119 mood/theme---relaxing 0.6814 , 0.1233 mood/theme---retro 0.7897 , 0.0247 mood/theme---romantic 0.7098 , 0.0735 mood/theme---sad 0.6895 , 0.1050 mood/theme---sexy 0.7432 , 0.0238 mood/theme---slow 0.6490 , 0.0399 mood/theme---soft 0.7250 , 0.0681 mood/theme---soundscape 0.7971 , 0.0432 mood/theme---space 0.7704 , 0.0572 mood/theme---sport 0.8375 , 0.0571 mood/theme---summer 0.8914 , 0.4466 mood/theme---trailer 0.8536 , 0.1519 mood/theme---travel 0.5629 , 0.0097 mood/theme---upbeat 0.7059 , 0.0398 mood/theme---uplifting 0.7052 , 0.0540
Popularity baseline always predicts the most frequent tag among tracks in the training set:
ROC-AUC 0.500000 PR-AUC 0.031924 precision-macro 0.001427 recall-macro 0.017857 F-score-macro 0.002642 precision-micro 0.079887 recall-micro 0.044685 F-score-micro 0.057312
 Bogdanov, D., Won M., Tovstogan P., Porter A., & Serra X. (2019). The MTG-Jamendo Dataset for Automatic Music Tagging. Machine Learning for Music Discovery Workshop, International Conference on Machine Learning (ICML 2019).
 Soleymani, M., Caro, M. N., Schmidt, E. M., Sha, C. Y., & Yang, Y. H. (2013). 1000 songs for emotional analysis of music. In Proceedings of the 2nd ACM international workshop on Crowdsourcing for multimedia (CrowdMM 2013), (pp. 1-6).
 Aljanaki, A., Yang, Y. H., & Soleymani, M. (2014, October). Emotion in Music Task at MediaEval 2014.
 Panda, R., Malheiro, R., & Paiva R. P. (2018). Musical Texture and Expressivity Features for Music Emotion Recognition. In Proceedings of the International Society on Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR2018), (pp. 383-391).
 Laurier, C., Meyers, O., Serra, J., Blech, M., & Herrera, P. (2009). Music mood annotator design and integration. In 7th International Workshop on Content-Based Multimedia Indexing (CBMI’09), (pp. 156-161).
 Kim, Y. E., Schmidt, E. M., Migneco, R., Morton, B. G., Richardson, P., Scott, J., Speck, J. A. & Turnbull, D. (2010, August). Music emotion recognition: A state of the art review. In Proceedings of the International Society on Music Information Retrieval Conference (ISMIR2010), (pp. 255-266).
 Hu, X., & Downie, J. S. (2007). Exploring Mood Metadata: Relationships with Genre, Artist and Usage Metadata. In Proceedings of the International Conference on Music Information Retrieval (ISMIR2007), pp. 67-72.
Music Technology Group, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain (firstname.lastname@example.org):
- Dmitry Bogdanov
- Alastair Porter
- Philip Tovstogan
- Minz Won
If you work on this task, please cite our MediaEval 2019 task overview paper:
Bogdanov, D., Porter A., Tovstogan P., & Won M. (2019). MediaEval 2019: Emotion and Theme Recognition in Music Using Jamendo. MediaEval 2019 Workshop.
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowsa-Curie grant agreement No. 765068